Drives and Control Solutions

Motors, Control Solutions, Power Transmission and Advanced Motion Technology                                                                 

Sawmills and lumber mills take freshly cut logs and process them into construction grade wood of all shapes and sizes. The process of turning a log into a usable piece of lumber has more or less stayed the same; the largest change to the manufacturing process is that it has become largely automated. In order to accomplish the advances in industrial automation, leading edge processors are incorporating variable frequency drives.




Circular Connectors 400The metric system of units was introduced for the first time in 1793 during the French Revolution and is used even today in almost all countries worldwide. The metric round plug connectors are also based on this system of units and are a known standard in raw industrial applications.



The major technical characteristics of a motor are found on its nameplate. The information shown is very relevant for the electrical installer because values for voltage, frequency and full load current are given, but important information for the mechanical design is missing and can be found in the datasheet, catalogue, or by direct contact to the motor manufacturer.




A general overview of the standard current control principles for Danfoss AC drives is illustrated in Fig. 3.26 Basic principles of current standard AC drive from Danfoss. The PWM switching patterns are calculated for the inverter using the selected control algorithm.





The inverter is the last of the main elements making up the AC drive. The inverter processes represent the final stage in terms of generating the output voltage and frequency. When the motor is connected directly to the mains, the ideal operating conditions apply at the rated operating point.

The AC drive guarantees good operating conditions throughout the whole speed range by adapting the output voltage to the load conditions. It is thus possible to maintain the magnetization of the motor at the optimal value.


Since the late 1960s, the AC drive has developed at a tremendous rate. Major advances have been made thanks to developments within the fields of microprocessor and semiconductor technology and the associated price reduction. However, the basic principles of the AC drive remain the same.




The synchronous motor is defined by the fact that the rotor rotates at the same speed as the magnetic field created by the stator windings. The design of the stator is in many cases similar to that of induction motors, with distributed windings. Some manufacturers use concentric windings (in slot) which enable a more compact motor design and require less copper. The energy savings achieved by the reduced use of copper are however often eaten up by additional losses, which result from harmonics in the air gap flux caused by the construction.




An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse process of producing electrical energy from mechanical energy is performed by a generator.




In 1968, Danfoss was the first company in the world to commence mass production of AC drives, for variable speed control of three- phase induction motors. Today AC drives are an increasingly important component for optimizing motor operation, and the system attached to the motor.




More and more, electricity is being considered a product. Ideally, the AC voltage wave is a sine wave alternating from a positive peak to a negative peak 60 times per second (60 Hz) without any deformations, spikes or surges. In reality, different factors influence the quality of the wave.




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